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Please note that some sections require a username and password to view. The popular demand for Tom Clancy’s action novels exceeded his ability to write new books. As a result, his publisher hired ghostwriters to write novels in the Clancy style. A ghostwriter is hired to write literary or journalistic works, speeches, or other texts that are officially credited to another person as the author. Usually, there is a confidentiality clause in the contract between the ghostwriter and the credited author that obligates the former to remain anonymous. Sometimes the ghostwriter is acknowledged by the author or publisher for his or her writing services, euphemistically called a «researcher» or «research assistant», but often the ghostwriter is not credited.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is an example of a well-known composer who was paid to ghostwrite music for wealthy patrons. Ghosting also occurs in popular music. A consultant or career-switcher may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance credibility as an ‘expert’ in their field. Public officials and politicians employ «correspondence officers» to respond to the large volume of official correspondence. Ghostwriters are hired for numerous reasons.
In many cases, celebrities or public figures do not have the time, discipline, or writing skills to write and research a several-hundred page autobiography or «how-to» book. Even if a celebrity or public figure has the writing skills to pen a short article, they may not know how to structure and edit a several-hundred page book so that it is captivating and well-paced. Ghostwriters may have varying degrees of involvement in the production of a finished work. Some ghostwriters are hired to edit and clean up a rough draft or partially completed work, while others are hired to do most of the writing based on an outline provided by the credited author.
For some projects, such as creating an autobiography for a celebrity, ghostwriters will do a substantial amount of research. Ghostwriters will often spend a period from several months to a full year researching, writing, and editing nonfiction and fiction works for a client. Ghostwriters are paid either per page, per each word or via total word count, with a flat fee, with a percentage of the royalties of the sales, or by using some combination thereof. The division of work between the ghostwriter and the credited author varies a great deal.
In some cases, the ghostwriter is hired to edit a rough draft of a mostly completed manuscript. In this case, the outline, ideas and much of the language in the finished book or article are those of the credited author. For an autobiography, a ghostwriter will typically interview the credited author, their colleagues, and family members, and find interviews, articles, and video footage about the credited author or their work. Also, ghostwriters may work on accompanying documents, such as treatments for screenplays. Often, ghostwriters will work on related projects beyond the scope of professional ghostwriting, such as marketing, promotions, sales, publishing or other related services for pay, in order to procure more clients and increase the total amount of their business. This section possibly contains original research.
500,000 fee for collaborating with her. Ghostwriters will often spend from several months to a full year researching, writing, and editing nonfiction and fiction works for a client, and they are paid based on a price per hour, per word or per page, with a flat fee, or a percentage of the royalties of the sales, or some combination thereof. One such market is the shorter book, best represented at the moment by Amazon’s Kindle Singles imprint: texts of 30,000 words and under. On the upper end of the spectrum, with celebrities that can all but guarantee a publisher large sales, the fees can be much higher. 8 million advance, which «is near the top of flat fees paid to collaborators». There is also the consideration of different benchmarks in different countries. 300 page book, paid at various stages of the drafting of the book.
Research fees are an extra charge on top of this minimum fee. A recent availability also exists, of outsourcing many kinds of jobs, including ghostwriting, to offshore locations like India, China and the Philippines where the customer can save money. In some cases, ghostwriters are allowed to share credit. Sometimes this is done in lieu of pay or in order to decrease the amount of payment to the book ghostwriter for whom the credit has its own intrinsic value. For nonfiction books, the ghostwriter may be credited as a «contributor» or a «research assistant».
Ghostwriters are widely used by celebrities and public figures who wish to publish their autobiographies or memoirs. The degree of involvement of the ghostwriter in nonfiction writing projects ranges from minor to substantial. Various sources explain the role of the ghostwriter and how competent writers can get this kind of work. In some cases, a ghostwriter may be called in just to clean up, edit, and polish a rough draft of an autobiography or a «how-to» book. Publishing companies use this strategy to increase the marketability of a book by associating it with a celebrity or well-known figure. A consultant or career-switcher may pay to have a book ghostwritten on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance their credibility as an ‘expert’ in their field. For example, a successful salesperson hoping to become a motivational speaker on selling may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on sales techniques.